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Collective stewardship: reconnecting sustainability values to restoring coastal landscapes

Compelling evidence reveal that the interaction between humanity and coastscapes is increasingly fragile, unhealthy, and far from sustainable. The overdose of carbons in the atmosphere is powerfully dictating land use choices and how land properties (re)connect to human life. Human diets are inversely shifting in relation to the carbon impacts. Meat is substituted with insects. Most ecological jobs are less green, and are more in deficits for the teeming youth. There is plenty of water in rivers, dams and streams but you cannot drink because it is either polluted or seeped to beneath bedrocks hidden from many people. Coastal resources are particularly being mined, fetched or recycled for tangible reasons such as housing, food, energy and pleasures. In this write up, I succinctly recount two initiatives from coastal savannas to highlight the relevance of collective stewardship, and what it can do to transform landscapes into prosperity for all.

The first initiative concerns mangroves. The mangrove trees were previously cut for firewood, livelihood or cash purposes without planned replanting. Nowadays, changing landscapes motivated the integration of sustainability values, thus acknowledging the need to balance economic, social and environmental ethics into everyday consumption of the mangrove ecosystem resources. One such recognition happened during a bright morning when 15 mangrove growers overwhelmingly decided to restore their landscapes. Their noble decision led to the protection and increase of mangrove trees from 12,200 to as high as 2.4 million, thus 0.16 million trees per an individual in less than 720 days. With this, almost 90% of the solution came from within the community, which entailed harnessing human values and fair recognition of socio-cultural norms, skills and interests of the people living nearer to the mangroves. Recognising the values helped to facilitate human cooperation. At the centre of the cooperation is trust, which strengthens relationships among the people. In areas where land is genuinely limited, trust helps to defeat gender inequality by offering women a chance to negotiate for shares in the mangrove assets for the first time. Gender breakthrough has emerged because trust aids bonding of the people to appreciate the rationale that goes with collective management of land resources. Indeed, the existing goodwill, belongingness and practical leadership served as enormous ingredients in turning the mangrove landscapes into productive assets.

The second initiative relates to oysters. Globally, scientists are discovering evidences from Maryland in the US through the New Zealand to the west coast of Africa to demonstrate that oysters and their ecosystems are not sustainable. The oyster ecosystems are severely threatened by climate change. There are fears that oysters are going extinct. Through our own field engagements at the grassroots, we have heard and seen similar proofs that oysters are rapidly declining. The oysters have completely disappeared from some coastal communities and, in other locations, migrated from shallow waters to deeper hydrospheres. Meanwhile, processing 0.82 tonnes of fresh oysters and 2.10 tonnes of oyster shells requires a processer to burn 120kg of charcoal to obtain 1,134.8kwh of energy. A typical processer earns a net profit of US$ 0.64 per day instead of generating US$ 5.2 a day. High consumption of charcoal encourages wood-cutting. This allows deforestation and degraded biomes to set in. And, in the process, deforestation kills soil microbes, forces birds to migrate, and speeds undesirable rise of the atmospheric temperature towards the 20C.

Can the people at the grassroots restore oyster ecosystems alone? Your guess is as good as others. Adequate incentives in the form of capital and enabling policy are essential for empowering people to keep coastal landscapes in sustainable conditions. As a result, we together with some partners, for example, are piloting a project called the Green Oyster Initiative through the Switch-Africa Green Programme to conserve and restore oyster ecosystems in the estuary of the Volta River – a basin responsible for nourishing approximately 120 million people in West Africa. Initially, our imaginations clearly tell us it was not possible. Soon after, we confidently moved our idea from a prototyping table into a practical action. Since then the preliminary outcomes have been incredibly impressive, considering what our meagre finances could afford and impact. We witnessed big solutions from a small budget. We learned that one oyster producer could potentially restore 12 million oysters within 5 years. With a total of 1,500 producers, they could co-restore 22.5 billion oysters. This translates into substantial benefits beyond organically enriching the oyster ecosystems. The restoration would improve incomes and add 30% decent jobs to expand green economic growth locally. Hundreds of children would be gradually pedaled out of hazardous labour and poverty. Investment capital amounting to over US$28 million could be attracted by 2035 as against US$5,000.00 presently. The repaired ecosystem also provides huge soft solutions such as generational hopes and heritage treasures, which must not be undervalued. Achieving all these results favour the 2030 Agenda. Moreover, oysters are zero-emitters of carbons. Thus, they are vital for realising the 2030 Agenda and the Paris Agreement. So, in the end, the restoration does not just benefit oysters but also the people, climate and water systems. These benefits and more necessitate the notion to reconnect sustainability values to the ways people use and manage coastal resources.

Human values often resonate from how people behave or interact among themselves and their environments. Conversely, sustainability values are bigger than human values in terms of conceptual and behavioural scope and signify how markets, environments and humans interact to build a sustainable society in which landscapes are flourishing and furnishing sufficient needs. The meaning of reconnecting sustainability values to landscapes is simply encapsulated in this: adopt ecologically sound approaches to maximise profit, sustain the source of the profit, and let people equitably benefit from the profit. In all, individual efforts must be encouraged in safeguarding the landscapes. However, with a growing demand to wisely utilise coastal resources to expand development opportunities to overcome urbanisation and carbon threats, I emphasise that collective stewardship from everyone is increasingly important in matters of landscape restoration.

This article is adapted from the Global Landscapes Forum at : http://events.globallandscapesforum.org/blog-competition/collective-stewardship-reconnecting-sustainability-values-to-restoring-coastal-landscapes/

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Ecodesign, sustainability and the world’s rising temperatures

In a typical human settlement in the global South, the reports of the United Nations, World Bank and Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change might not be necessary to establish scientific evidence of rising temperatures triggered by excessive greenhouse gases (GHGs). Human-induced climate threats are clear – collapse of ant colonies, visibly eroded coastscapes, biodiversity loss, and deficits of food, income and energy. The latest sign of ravaging climate troubles point to the view that decarbonisation is inevitable. High toxicity level of carbons in industrial production or consumption processes must be collectively worked on. One of the underrated but innovative approaches to do this is ecodesign. Can ecodesign tips minor pores of bigger global change solutions like the well-thought Carbon Law brilliantly being championed by some of the world’s finest Climate Scientists? Can’t ecodesign emit sustainability solutions to help the world’s rising temperatures? The ecodesign centres, comprising OVAM and Pole Eco-conception (Belgium), Effizienz-Agentur, NRW (Germany), EA (Switzerland), Ihobe (Spain) and Ecodesign Centre (UK) as well as the Auckland Council on Ecodesign and the EcoDesign Initiative in South Africa are all promoting greener ideals and actions through ecodesign.

When I first heard the term ‘ecodesign’ during a learning session in the Hungarian city of Budapest, my mind was that it might connote how land-use activities could be re-ordered to put ecosystem resources to good use. I sensed similar thought when I participated in another event on ‘Promoting eco-entrepreneurship in Africa’ under the SWITCH Africa Green programme jointly organised by EU (UNEP, UNDP and UNOPS) from 16-18, March 2017 in Kumasi. Although these were two distinct events, during each of them, I asked myself: ‘how could the 1.5oC or 2.0oC world benefit from ecodesign?’ I expected to hear fresh ideas and tools of how to geospatially virtualise and conically trim Mt Everest, watch videos of elephants in Ghana’s Mole Park, Kalahari Conservation Sites of Botswana and Namibia, retrofitted Amazon biosphere and, of course, aesthetically adorned City Hall of Stockholm. But, I was naïve. So wrong! The concept of ecodesign embraces a range of social issues and technical principles, including ‘durability’, using ‘non-toxic materials’, ‘recycling’ and ensuring product design is ‘fair and user-centered’. The later principle means that designing a product, whether in an industry or not, must be about people. This is the rationale why ecodesign often rewires social, economic and environmental dimensions of circular, linear, performance, green, sharing and sustainable economies far beyond land-use practices. In ecodesign interventions, “green walls” are not always enough because the understanding is that the real value of a product for public consumption is not seen in the virtual imagery of the product. Is it not that “the smell is good but the content may be toxic”? Decoupling the content of a product to be free of toxicity is required in the fight against climate change.

As Frank O’Connor would not completely disagree, designing ‘can influence the way people consume, use, behave … live’ in different living conditions. How solutions are expertly designed can have multiplier effects on the speed and scale at which climate troubles can be monitored and reduced through public consumption. Ecodesign is an ‘approach to designing products and services that aim to reduce environmental impacts over full life cycle, 80% of which are determined at the design state.’ Compare to conventional design, ecodesign places strong emphasis on strengthening socio-ecological systems, remanufacturing by-products and innovating renewable energy. Thus, ecodesign goes with eco-innovation to enhance eco-efficiency and resource sustainability, which are at the heart of green economy. In the manufacturing sector, ecodesign uses the right mix of ingredients to come out with consumable or material goods that are not harmful to humans and the environment and, at the same time, generate profits. How sure are we about the quality of the food we eat, sunglass, ear ring, football jersey, and phone handsets? Is the bed or kettle we use carbon-compensated? Is the footwear or e-waste toxic-free? Keeping down atmospheric temperature from escalating suggests that ecodesigning must lead to decoupling production systems or stopping CO2 emitted through consumerism not to interrupt the earth’s climate systems.

Many people tend to confuse ecodesign with geodesign. It is important to get this right. These two approaches are not the same in practice. Theoretically, both approaches recognise sustainability as a common purpose for benchmarking and monitoring the interactions of product, people and planet. That is why industrially ecodesigning a product for the arctic region varies from designing same for the deserts or savannas. Yet, in all regions, ecodesign aims to build resilience in whatever way possible to contribute to averting the earth’s climate systems from crossing “critical tipping point”. Accordingly, ecodesign needs to inform resource utilisation, manufacturing, lifestyles and services. This includes ensuring that ecodesigning a product is preceded by researching real needs of communities, groups and institutions to work out greener solutions that are not inimical to the very goal for which the solutions are formed. Children might be disadvantaged if those who design products for them do not consult them or their parents in the product design processes.

The meaning is that ecodesign is eco-inclusive and promotes sustainable consumption of both renewable and non-renewable resources to satisfy full needs of humans without damaging the natural environments. It is applicable in conserving biodiversity, aviation, mining, ecoparks, fishing/farming, railway, chemical industry and cement production. What about built environment, music and film industries? Ecodesign encourages greener labels and eco-certification of products from forest, sea, desert or solar origins – utilising less forest product equals less deforestation hence less climate risks. By this, ecodesign engages as many actors and customers as possible in the processes of production, distribution and consumption that allow the actors to minimise product impacts on ecosystem destruction. Instead of transporting 500,000 tonnes of food across three megacities, using 4.5 barrels of fossil fuels, ecopackaging the food can increase the total volume of the food in transit by 45%. Additional use of 2.25 barrels is avoided and CO2e is cut by 1.7% margin. In this case, the benefits of ecodesign are not only reflected in lowering GHGs but also minimizing material flows, saving energy, reducing cost and improving incomes.

Like industrial energy systems, ecodesign can be incorporated into planning, upgrading and rebuilding cities for the future – relevant approach to invest in. Urban population is not going to decline in years to come. Urban spaces will continue to be squeezed. More people will convert carbon-absorbing spaces and species to make living and, in the end, generate extra CO2. Urban waste in all its forms (solid, liquid, e-waste, etc.) will affect quality of urban lives and increase severity of climate risks like foods. What can ecodesign do in this situation? Ecodesign does not seek to provide every remedy in complex situations of city congestion, resource scarcity and climate change but to play a part in creating comfort, livability and sustainability. The critical need to stop climate troubles is a strong basis to influence climate knowledge, governance and policy of why climate-oriented ecodesign has to be financed and supported alongside more scientifically convincing and comprehensive solutions such as the Carbon Law. This is extremely important if sustainable decarbonisation is to be achieved.

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